Table of Content
- 1 What is a Tech Stack?
- 2 What are the Essential Components of Tech Stack?
- 2.1 Front-End Technology Stacks
- 2.2 Back-End Tech Stack
- 3 What is a Tech Stack Used For?
- 4 What is the Difference Between Web and Mobile App Tech Stack?
- 5 Importance of Tech Stack for Your Project
- 6 What are the Benefits of Using Tech Stacks?
- 7 How to Choose a Tech Stack For Your Project?
- 8 Primary Factors That You Need To Take Care of While Selecting Tech Stack
- 8.1 Defining the Platform
- 8.2 Defining the Project Type
- 8.3 Scalability Requirements
- 8.4 Technology and Team Expertise
- 8.5 Maintenance
- 8.6 Codebase
- 8.7 Software Architecture
- 9 7 Most-Popular Tech Stacks That You Should Opt For
- 9.1 MEAN Tech Stack
- 9.2 MERN Tech Stack
- 9.3 MEVN Stack
- 9.4 Ruby on Rail Stack
- 9.5 Flutter
- 9.6 LAMP Tech Stack
- 9.7 Django Tech Stack
- 10 What’s Your Next Step?
With every new year, thousands of new apps are developed all over the world, amounting to millions of dollars, and with every new advancement, new tech stacks become in demand.
Are you interested in knowing more about tech stack meaning?
The term “tech stack” is a buzzword frequently used in technical contexts, although its exact meaning is not always evident. For example, when you enquire about someone’s stack, they might disclose the programming languages or development environments they employ.
What does it mean, then?
By reading our guide, learn what is a tech stack and how to choose one for your next project.
What is a Tech Stack?
A tech stack (technology stack) is a pool of technologies that you can use in your project to build a website, a web app, or a mobile app. Sounds interesting, Right?
In simple words, a technology stack is a collection of technology services that you can utilize to design and build responsive single-page applications for your business needs.
Generally, there exist two specific elements with a tech stack: Front-End and Back-End. We’re going to discuss this in detail in the upcoming section.
But before that let me make you go through the data for the most popular technologies being used globally.
What are the Essential Components of Tech Stack?
In this article on what is a tech stack, we’ll now focus on understanding the concept of tech stack components. There are two major components needed when creating a web-based application: front-end development and back-end development.
The front end consists of everything that the customer will see when they interact with the application through their device, whether it be a desktop computer, tablet or mobile phone.
The back end consists of everything that happens behind the scenes to make the application work. The terms “front end” and “back end” may be interchanged with “client-side” and “server-side”.
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Let’s now take a look at the main components of a technology stack.
Front-End Technology Stacks
Front-end specifically deals with client-side technology and it is not having a connection with server-side terminologies. In simple words, we can say that the front end is what exactly users see when they open any website. Front-end development services focus on graphics, buttons, and how things behave when someone interacts with them.
Front-end tech stacks usually consist of three elements:
- HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):
- It’s one of the standard markup languages used for creating web pages.
- It is primarily used for structuring and placing content on your web apps.
- You can imagine it as the framework that tells everything where to go.
- CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
- It’s the language that determines the style of your web page.
- This technology specifically describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on the screen, on paper, or in other media.
- It is solely responsible for handling colours, fonts, layout, etc. to beautify your web application as per your needs.
- Think of this as the paintbrush that tells everything how to look.
- It is a scripting language that helps you to implement complex features on web pages
- Enables interactivity and enhances the functionality of a website or app.
- This technology is responsible for performing advanced functionalities like displaying timely content updates, interactive maps, animated 2D/3D graphics, scrolling video jukeboxes, etc.
- This is the part that tells everything that you need to do.
- HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):
Back-End Tech Stack
The back end is the server-side technology. It supports the inner workings of a website or app. In short, these are the behind-the-scenes pieces that make the visible portions look and act the way they do.
Generally, the back end consists of four essential terminologies like programming languages, frameworks, databases, and a server.
A framework like Ruby on Rails, Django, or Laravel. The framework is a set of components whose purpose is to simplify the development process. Frameworks provide a structure to the application and have common utilities so that you don’t have to write every piece of logic from scratch. Some popular web frameworks are Express, Spring, Django, Laravel, Rails, and .NET.
Diversity in top web frameworks and technologies
Database like MySQL, PostgreSQL, or MongoDB. This is where your code lives. Databases are an integral part of a tech stack. Whether your application is simple or has many workflows, you need a place to store all your information. Some popular databases are MongoDB and MySQL.
Modern data platforms like MongoDB further enhance the functionality of a database by providing intelligent querying, aggregation, and transformation features, in addition to data storage and retrieval.
Diversity in top Databases
A server like Apache, Nginx, or IIS. Your server is a computer program or a physical machine that stores, processes, and delivers (or serves) your coded content to users as a website or application. A web server takes in requests (HTTP) from the client (for example, browser), passes it on to the database for the requested information, and handles the response. Apache HTTPd and Nginx are commonly used robust web servers.
User interface to use markup like HTML and CSS stylesheets, or frameworks like Bootstrap or Tailwind, depending on the styling needs of the project.
Runtime environment is the terminology by which an application is run. Runtime provides cross-platform compatibility. Java Runtime Environment (JRE), Node.js, and Common Language Runtime (CLR) are examples of runtime environments.
There are many other components—like APIs, analytics tools, BI tools, cloud services, and microservices—that can enhance the functions of an application.
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What is a Tech Stack Used For?
The primary aim of creating a tech stack for your application is to
- Maximize the application efficiency
- Enhance the productivity of your application
- Improve the performance and security of the application
Selecting the perfect tech stack for your application is an essential factor that you need to consider for your entire website or app development process. Moreover, the selection of the right tech and tools makes it easy for you to build faster and more responsive apps.
You can use the most popular tech stack.
You can use the latest and fanciest frameworks.
You can use the best design practices.
But after all, they won’t solve all your problems.
Because software development is a people process.
What is the Difference Between Web and Mobile App Tech Stack?
After having a look at the basic concept of what is a tech stack, let’s focus on understanding the difference between web and mobile app stacks.
Mobile App Tech Stacks
For developing a mobile application for your business, you need to take into account various user perspectives. In simple words, you need to make applications for different devices as day by day new devices are getting launched in the market.
And if we talk about mobile app development, you need to be ready with various mobile app platforms like Android and iOS.
Let’s start by understanding the Android tech stack.
Programming Language Android App Development Tools UI Framework Java is the only primary language that is specifically used for developing Android applications. This language is fully-supported and has great scalability. Android Studio is the official development platform for Google’s Android app. Android UI comes up with pre-built templates that are handy for developers to build user interfaces quickly Apart from Java, Kotlin is the most-preferred language for developing Android apps. The good part is that it is considered to be the second official Android development language by Google. Built upon Jetbrain’s technology, it provides an intuitive interface for developers to build Android apps. Android UI make use of prebuilt Android UI components, like structured layout objects and UI controls, to build the graphical user interface for your applications.
Now we’ll understand the tech stack for iOS apps.
Programming Language iOS App Development Tools UI Framework Objective-C is the original language used to build the iOS app. Nevertheless, building an app with Objective-C isn’t easy, and developers are prone to make mistakes with it. Xcode – An official development tool by Apple, and it’s your easy-to-use platform whether you’re using Swift or Objective-C. It comes up with all the features needed to build the native iOS mobile app, including a visual interface builder. UIKit – UIKit is the basic framework for building graphical components in the iOS app. It contains templates defining the UI elements which form the building blocks of the app. Swift is a relatively newer language and developers are favouring it over Objective-C. With its safer syntax, fewer mistakes are committed and apps are developed in much less time. It’s also easier to find developers adept in Swift as it’s easier to learn and master. AppCode – Developed by a 3rd party, AppCode is an open-source alternative to XCode. While it enables iOS mobile app development, it lacks the features of XCode and to an extent, is still dependent on the latter. SwiftUI – SwiftUI is a newer framework that offers a more efficient way of designing UI elements in iOS apps. However, it only works for IOS13 and above, and there are limited resources as it was just launched in 2019.
Apart from Android and iOS app development, there exists an option where you can write the same code for both technologies and that’s what is called cross-platform technologies.
Let’s focus on the cross-platform tech stacks.
- Flutter (Dart) – Flutter is one of the leading and most-used cross-platform development tools and is developed by Google. With its ‘hot reload’ feature, it helps you from getting rid of wasting time on emulators and simulators while its expressive widget promises native performance.
- Xamarin (C#) – Developers proficient in C# will find Xamarin a natural choice for building cross-platform apps. Codes written in C# are cross-compiled to native programs for both Android and iOS platforms.
Web App Tech Stack
Compared to the mobile app, desktop apps works differently. You don’t need to download a web app to your device to use it.
Web app tech stacks use resources that are available in an internet browser. There are many internet browsers, and your tech stack should work with all of them.
However, it’s wise to test your websites and online applications on all the most popular browsers to make sure it works the way you expect.
Importance of Tech Stack for Your Project
The importance of the technology stack meaning is to help you build apps with fewer roadblocks and also bring convenience in predicting the time and budget required for your application needs.
You need to make the perfect decision of tech stacks for your project needs as they directly impact the following (but are not limited to) parameters.
- How your application runs now and how it will be affected in the future perspectives.
- How you can efficiently maintain and scale your application to enhance your business performance.
- You need to decide whether your business or application objectives are met or not
- How you are going to store your application data, whether it may be local or cloud.
First, you need to consult developers or hire full-stack developers from the best custom software development company where you get assured of your business objectives and how you need to deal with them.
In addition, selecting the right tools and services for your project needs will save you from many existing or upcoming development risks.
What are the Benefits of Using Tech Stacks?
Selecting the perfect tech stack for your application plays a major role in determining how it is going to be affecting your business perspectives. So, you need to understand how such tech stacks are essential for your business needs after having a deep understanding of what is a tech stack definition.
Easily Scale Your Application
Selecting the right tech stack for your application typically makes it easy for you to design and build an application without worrying about the maximum number of people using your application.
So, it becomes essential for you to select the framework and database that can efficiently scale well for your application. In simple words, we can say that your selected tech stack will definitely save you from horizontal and vertical scaling issues as and when there is an increase in your user base.
Enhance the Development Speed
A proper technology stack will also help speed up the development process because you have an option where you can easily hire full-stack developers or experts in individual technologies.
Moreover, you can also choose a specific technology stack to capitalise on the expertise of your current team. It is also easier for developers to communicate about how the application works.
Project Management Becomes Easier
When you plan a technology stack ahead of time, you will already be aware of the resources, infrastructure, automation, hardware, and other project requirements, saving both money and time.
Deciding on Stack Complexity
Finally, because you know the goal and size of the project/web application you’re going to build, you can decide on the complexity of the stack and avoid using technologies and operations that aren’t really necessary for your project, as well as bulky resources.
How to Choose a Tech Stack For Your Project?
There is no specific definition of the “right” technology stack. It ultimately depends on your basic project needs. But, there are a few primary factors you should consider while choosing/building your tech stack.
Define Your Application Purpose
One of the foremost things to do before planning to start an application is to prepare yourself for your application purpose. It means that you have to ask the following questions in mind.
- What do you want to make your web application perform?
- How is your application going to perform the integrations with other systems?
- What are your target audience and user expectations from your application?
- How many web pages are you planning to include in your application?
Depending on your project needs, such questions are not just limited to the above points.
If you’re planning to build a single-page application for your business, you can opt for easy and lightweight technologies like Angular or React. Both of these are referred to as front-end frameworks, but still, there exists some difference between Angular Vs React.
On the other hand, if you have an application with multiple functionalities, you must select sophisticated tools and frameworks that usually follow different workflows and integration between various systems.
Design and User Experience
Once you’ve finalised the purpose of your application, you need to move ahead with the designing phase trust me, it’s one of the essential factors that need to be considered.
It plays a significant role in identifying and attracting more traffic to your application. You must select the robust tools that typically serve the purpose of your user interface. And it’s one of the most effective ways to justify the design team’s expectations. If your website relies on content, go with server-side rendering-compatible technology.
Time to Production
Your application should be launched as soon as you can. Consequently, make investments in technologies that provide services and answers for typical use cases and functions. Additionally, if technology has strong community support, it can assist bring new features to market more quickly, especially if the project requires additional personnel. Finally, choose technologies that are simple for engineers to test and learn.
You can save money on deployment and maintenance by incorporating cloud solutions (like MongoDB Atlas or AWS) into your IT stack. Select technologies that are easy to incorporate.
You will have to pay more for the developer’s compensation as well as the maintenance of the programme if you select more specialised or advanced technology. Choosing easy-to-learn technologies or ones that your team is already familiar with can save on development time and project costs overall.
Scaling Your Application
In practice, scalability is difficult to achieve. Most of the time, it isn’t easy to scale and optimise the database system or queries. However, modern NoSQL databases, such as MongoDB, provide a wide range of scaling options, making them an excellent choice for data-intensive applications.
Similarly, a good framework design (such as the Model-View-Controller) aids in writing correct code, making future expansion easier.
While no technology can guarantee complete security, always choose technologies that adhere to best practices to ensure maximum data and transaction security while minimising vulnerabilities.
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Primary Factors That You Need To Take Care of While Selecting Tech Stack
Because it is what you use to create software applications, the tech stack is important. Therefore, when choosing the appropriate collection of tools, don’t undervalue the importance of study and analysis.
Making the wrong technology option can cost your project money, time, and other vital resources. To prevent hazards while selecting your tech stack, you’ll need a solid business analyst and skilled engineers.
Here is a list of requirements to take into account while selecting a useful tech stack.
Defining the Platform
What goals does the initiative hope to achieve? This is a crucial reminder. Choosing a stack is only worthwhile if you know what you want the project to do for you.
You should now ask yourself: Who is my target audience? How, when, and where will they use your software? Which of them is the most popular active device? Is it a traditional PC or a cell phone?
For instance, a web application needs a different set of tools and frameworks than a mobile app. Moreover, the tech stacks required for Android and iOS development differ even inside mobile applications.
The optimal tech stack should then be planned based on your responses, including whether you require a single- or multi-platform solution. Remember this if you are creating an MVP first. It is preferable to make it on a well-known platform well-liked by your target audience to save software development expenses and quickly obtain user feedback.
It makes no difference if it is an online or mobile application. The development process and the success of a project depend on the MVP. After designing the platform, consider all of the functional and non-functional requirements for the launch of the project.
A set of clearly defined MVP requirements will identify the tools you need to accomplish your goal and any additional tech stack you might require for the market version.
Defining the Project Type
After you’ve defined the platform, you’ll need to conduct additional research before deciding on a tech stack. First, you will evaluate the project based on its size and complexity, processing strength, and business objectives.
For example, if your application requires multiprocessing or low latency for better responsiveness, you must consider the relative tech stack that provides such support.
They are typically delivered quickly due to simple requirements and can be implemented using less sophisticated technologies such as CMS or WordPress in the case of web projects.
There is a higher level of technological commitment for mid-size projects. Depending on the requirements and platforms, they may require the use of a variety of programming languages and tools. Such projects necessitate the use of technologies with more sophisticated and diverse functionalities and integrations.
If you want to build a social network, online marketplace, CRM, or order management system, you’re in for a difficult task. The use of multiple programming languages is unavoidable in such cases. This is similar to a mid-sized project, but with more complex features. You require multiple functions, integrations, and increased sophistication, so your tech stack must be of the highest calibre.
A tech stack’s role in an application’s scalability is to allow for an increase in users and functions. Therefore, your developers should select a tech stack that allows for new engaging features, user growth, and seasonal increases in the number of users.
Your scalability plan must include horizontal scaling (multiple application servers running simultaneously to handle user traffic) and vertical scaling (adding more programmes to process new data types). When stormy days arrive, scaling horizontally and vertically will keep your application from crashing.
Technology and Team Expertise
Unless you are looking to outsource, you should weigh the expertise of your team and use it as a basis to judge your choice of tech stack. Developers typically have a stronger command of certain programming languages and tools than others, so it all comes down to how skilled your team is.
You must be confident that your team can successfully implement a tech stack, or else there is no reason to use one. You can train them instead of hiring an expert to compensate for the lack of technology on your team.
That is, if you have the luxury of time; if you are under time constraints, simply outsource the project. As a result, it is critical to match your team’s skills and experience with the technology of choice. In this case, platforms like DesignRush can be extremely useful in locating the best agency.
Also, make sure your chosen technology has a large developer community and reference documents available, such as on GitHub and Stackoverflow. This would prevent your team from becoming reliant on a single tool or technology.
You must consider your team’s ability to maintain the application after it is released. This is the next lane after you’ve developed your app, and it’s also related to your tech stack selection.
If you want feasible maintenance, your choice of tech stack should be motivated by software architecture and existing codebase. Choose effective languages with short, reusable, and easy-to-maintain codes. Your codebase should be straightforward and of average length. It allows developers to spend a limited amount of time reviewing, debugging, and processing code.
Software architecture is vital in enabling application scalability, portability, and reusability. Therefore, your software architecture should guide your choice of the technology stack.
As a result, you should look into technologies that support static and dynamic component configurations. It ensures that the application runs smoothly even as the number of users grows or new features are added.
7 Most-Popular Tech Stacks That You Should Opt For
MEAN Tech Stack
MEAN, which includes MongoDB (NoSQL DB), the backend web framework Express.js, the front-end framework Angular.js, and the open-source, cross-platform server Node.js, is at the top of the list of the most popular web development stacks. The majority of complicated mobile and web-responsive applications employ this tech stack.
What are the benefits of using the MEAN tech stack?
- The technologies are widely used, open source, and cost nothing.
- The database can readily withstand consumption spikes and can scale as needed.
- Since they have their server, MEAN-created apps may be hosted in the cloud and are more adaptable and expandable.
- It contains several plugins and technologies that can significantly reduce the time and cost of developing web apps, websites, and APIs.
MEAN-built applications can efficiently integrate with server panels more quickly.
MERN Tech Stack
MERN has unquestionably earned a spot on the list of tech stacks that will be most in demand in 2022. It resembles MEAN in many ways.
The main distinction between these two leading web development stacks is that MERN is made up of React rather than Angular.js. And it’s one of the most significant advantages because it offers a robust library source, can also be used for front-end and back-end development projects and can be used on both servers and browsers simultaneously.
Why MERN is considered to be one of the most popular tech stacks?
- You don’t need to start from scratch because of its open-source code, which can be regularly enhanced and altered by developers all around the world.
- The availability of comprehensive templates online, which can significantly speed up creation.
- The abundance of available documentation makes it simpler to comprehend, utilise, and deploy, which can be very helpful for beginning developers.
One of the top web development stacks for 2022 is a variant of the MEAN stack called MEVN, in which Vue.js, a framework that combines some of the most significant features of Angular and React framework, basically takes the role of Angular.js as the front-end framework.
Despite being less complex than what is Angular, this solution offers a wide range of tools and creative capabilities that can be enhanced with the help of outside services. For example, prototypes, interactive visuals, and animations can all be handled with Vue without any issues.
What are the biggest advantages of adopting the MEVN tech stack?
Because the MVC architecture organises the server component of the project, backend development is simpler to complete.
The framework is ideal for online projects and is simple to learn and use.
Ruby on Rail Stack
In 2021, Ruby was one of the most widely used programming languages, and in 2022, it is still in high demand as a component of the Ruby on Rails (ROR) stack. Ruby on Rails is an open-source framework for developing web applications that can be used to create a wide variety of front- and back-end apps. It offers a pre-built framework with all the components necessary to create any kind of online application.
It also collaborates with JSON and XML for data transport and HTML, CSS, and JS to create interactive user interfaces. It is one of the most well-known Ruby libraries, perfect for projects with intricate business logic and a tight budget that require quick delivery of a web application.
What are the benefits of the ROR tech stack?
- The tool comes up with many reliable safety features built in.
- Its availability for free and its effortless compatibility with Linux.
- Other third-party libraries can be easily coupled with Ruby, which can be very helpful in developing functionality quickly.
- Internal testing of the complete code without the aid of other software.
Without adding Flutter, the top web stacks list for 2022 would be incomplete. This free user interface development tool is excellent for creating any kind of mobile app because it can handle everything from a single codebase.
The Flutter engine, the Foundation Library, the Dart development language, and design widgets are all components of this stack. This ground-breaking framework offers a number of advantages, including the ability to add new features and correct faults without slowing down websites. It is also simple to use with IntelliJ, Visual Code Studio, or Android Studio.
Flutter has improved upon some of the drawbacks of existing stacks like LAMP or MERN because it is a relatively young stack, which adds to its appeal.
But because it’s so young, Flutter still only has a few tools and libraries, and it doesn’t support password managers. However, this tool will unquestionably enable you to create high-end integrations and high-quality apps in less time.
LAMP Tech Stack
One of the most popular stacks for web development is LAMP, which has practically taken over the market. LAMP, which stands for Linux as the operating system, Apache as the web server, MySQL as the database management application, and PHP as the primary programming language, is open source and available for free. It is a superb tool in terms of performance, versatility, and efficiency and can simply run on any operating system.
One of the best things about this tech stack is how interchangeable the parts are. Instead of using Linux, you can use macOS (MAMP) or Microsoft Windows (WAMP), and you can replace PHP with Perl or Python.
The stability, dynamism, dependability, and user-friendliness of LAMP are some of its main advantages. There are also numerous documents to assist developers and enterprises in navigating and fully utilising its possibilities.
Django Tech Stack
Python, one of the top programming languages for 2021–2022, the Django framework, the Apache web server, and MySQL for database administration make up Django’s top web development stack. This tech stack encourages rapid development and has a clear, logical architecture.
It has several fantastic benefits for development, such as the ability to run independently on Linux, Mac, or Windows, many security layers to keep your projects entirely safe and hidden from prying eyes, and excellent documentation.
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What’s Your Next Step?
Even if money is not an issue, picking the appropriate technology depends on the needs of the project and the team that will build it. This choice has the power to succeed or fail a project. To learn how other goods of a comparable nature to the one you intend to create were constructed, you need to conduct the study.
You can consult your business analysts, project managers, and developers to choose which frameworks and technologies are ideal for the desired project. If your team is lacking, you may hire new developers or train the current ones.
Albiorix Technology will be happy to offer you advice and support for your software projects. The best suitable tech stack and project management techniques that ensure successful project delivery will be recommended to you. Contact us right away to learn more about our software development services.